Primary Secondary and Tertiary alcohols can be distinguished by the following test/reactions.
1. Luca’s Test:
In this test alcohols are treated with an equimolar mixture of concentrated HCl and anhydrous (called Lucas reagent) and the alcohols gets converted into alkyl halides. Since alkyl halides are insoluble in water, their formation is indicated by the appearance of turbidity in the reaction mixture
Since order of reactivity of alcohols with halogen acids is time required for the appearance of cloudiness will be different in different alcohols and this test helps to distinguish them from one another.
2. Victor Mayer’s Test